Here is the promised article on how to make a cold frame. This is a simple project that should not take more than 2 – 3 hours. I built both of these in 3 hours, the longest part of the job is measuring and cutting.
A cold frame is used specifically to allow for the germination of seeds and protection of seedling in sub-optimal weather conditions. Typically the cold fame is closed just before sunset so that the frame can store heat at night and opened soon after sun-rise, to ensure that the seeds or seedlings are not cooked during the day. This is very important and will need to be controlled as weather conditions change. We typically will have 3 lengths of wood that prop open the lid depending on what temperatures are experiences. During hot weather you will want to have the lid open on maximum and vice-versa for colder weather.
Watering is also important as the seed trays and pots used inside the cold farm will require at least an everyday watering and sometimes more, you will need to maintain a watch and if you see wilting use a watering can with a fine rose to water your seedlings.
Ok onto the cold frame. We used standard pine shelving (2400 x455 mm wide) from our local board centre. I bought 4 pieces but only needed 3, to make two cold frames. The wife is happy as she gets a new shelf in her pantry that she has been pleading for with the 4th piece.
I’m going to give rough dimensions as each person will have their own size requirements, and the two that I made will allow us to germinate over 4000 seedlings in one go. There are not many gardeners out there that need to germinate so many seedlings, unless you are supplying seedlings at a farmers market. So you can adapt this to your needs.
Basically the design will work on the following principles. The back of the cold frame (South side) needs to be higher than the front (North side) ours is 300mm at the back and 150mm in the front. We cut one of the shelves into two, lengthways to give us the 300mm high back and the 150 mm front pieces. The sides of this cold frame were cut from a full width board and we measured to the same height as the front and back boards.
These four pieces were screwed together with standard 40mm chipboard screws using a pilot hole to prevent the board ends splitting. Handles were cut and screwed on made from off cuts, this allows two people to pick up a cold frame and move it easily.
For the lid of the cold frame we used Thermoclear but you could use any rigid transparent material. We decided to use Thermoclear as a) we had a spare sheet lying around and b) it has a twin wall with wonderful rigid cells running the length of the sheet. It’s the perfect way to make double glazing with minimal effort. Although the boxes are a bit draughty, I felt that this little bit of extra insulation should keep the heat in and cold out for a while longer. When measuring your lid, have the material overlap by 15 – 20 mm all around as this will allow moisture to drip away from your wood and helps to preserve the cold frame.
This plastic sheeting is also great, because if you carefully cut through the top layer of plastic you have a hinge and it solves a lot of construction issues with additional hinges and effort. We sealed the ends with clear silicone to create a ‘double glazing’ effect on the lids. Just make sure you dry the silicone in the shade, as it’s amazing how quickly the heat (pressure) builds up in each tube and starts to push the silicone out before it has a chance to dry.
One everything is dry, oil the wood to keep it weather proof, we use Waksol (R90.00 for 5 Lt) but use up whatever you have lying in your workshop/garage.
The cold frame is then placed directly on a tarp which is laid on level ground, the seed trays and pots (for cucurbits and larger faster growing seeds) are then placed inside onto the tarp. The tarp is there for two reasons, 1) to prevent grass and weeds coming up through your seed trays and 2) it helps to keep the roots inside the cell divisions / pots. If you place the trays or pots directly on the soil then the seedlings roots grow straight into the soil and you destroy half of the plants root structure when you lift them to transplant. In larger more formal seedling operations the seed trays are placed onto a wire frame to discourage the roots from growing through, we are not quite there yet.
That’s about it for making a cold frame, it’s simple and easy, and will allow you to get a good 5 – 6 weeks head start on the planting season.
Are you a market gardener, or are you looking at becoming a market gardener?
Market gardening is taking off at a pace that is astounding in South Africa, one can hardly believe the number of Farmers Markets and Local Produce Markets that have sprung up over the last 3-4 years.
Typically one finds that they are either an evolution of the typical Flea Market, all the way to full blown Fresh and Homemade produce markets that are supplied by Market Gardeners, small farmers or home industry type entrepreneurs. This post will focus on the market gardener and some things that you need to do, to literally stand-out from the crowd, while at the same time have your wares and name become a sought after attraction at your local farmers market.
Firstly you will need to understand who your target market will be. If you are selling at a farmers market in a low-mid income area, the chances that you can sell your high-end organic/biodynamic crops at a premium will be limited. However, if your Farmers Market is situated where higher income customers frequent, you will have a much better chance at moving your stock. That said there has simply never been a better time to be a fresh market grower and seller. These markets are thriving and customers are excited about locally grown food. They will often brag to their guests where and how they purchased the unique tomatoes that are in the salad, or the stunning carrot/pumpkin/bean/cucumber variety that adorns their serving dishes. That bragging will bring new people to your stand, and it can only happen if you are the one that stands head and shoulders above your competition, and more importantly gets customers coming back week after week.
Below are a few hints/tip and suggestions that you can use to be the supplier at your local farmers market that stands out.
Specialise: Look for a gap in the market and capitalise on that gap. Are there already heirloom tomato suppliers at your local market? If there are, how can you capitalise on that? You could offer the makings of an entire salad instead and not just tomatoes. You could can your excess tomatoes into a ‘sous’ or braai relish. Another idea is to specialise in a crop family, like brassicas/beans/pumpkins or chillies. Chillies that are sold loose do well but if you package chillies into segmented punnets with different heat rating or similar heat ratings you will move so many more. In the off season, dried chillies or chilli products are great. Beans can be sold green and dried, speciality beans can be sold off by weight or pre-packaged. I love the sight of buckets of different dried beans that one can buy by the scoop.
Add History: If you can tell your customer about the origin or history of the particular fruit/vegetable you spark their interest, that interest makes sales. A good example would be to say that Carbon won the title of best tasting tomato in the world. Tell a story about your produce, like the Mayflower Bean was carried over to America before it became America and helped keep starvation at bay for the first pioneers.
Add Value: A free recipe card that is thrown in with their purchase for the items that they have bought will always bring a customer back… but only if the recipe is good. Try to keep the recipe simple, but it must make the dish memorable. Offer a bulk discount, one bunch of Purple Dragon Carrots for R10.00 but you can have 3 for R25.00. Or combine 3or 4 items at a special price.
Cross Sell: Group vegetables together that would make a meal, that way customers are more inclined to buy a number of items together, see recipe idea above. If you can’t group them because of your display then offer cooking suggestions with a combination of your veggies.
Banter: Talk to browsing customers and offer tasters of unusual vegetables. While a client is paying, offer cooking/eating advice that other customers can hear, that you can expand on once the paying customer has left. Combine your banter with information and how you grow your produce, tell them what’s coming in a few weeks time, it all helps to sell now and bring them back later.
Stack it High: A Madeiran friend of mine says that veggies only sell if the pile is high. So don’t put out a few of your veggies, stack them out and way high. It’s visually appealing and helps to draw the feet… those feet need your veggies. If you have crates, fill them and then tilt the crate up so the customers will notice your amazing produce. Next time you are browsing a farmers market look at who is busiest and what their stand looks like. I can almost guarantee they have produce stacked high. If you can bring feet to your stall, others want to know why everyone is there, that’s when you start selling.
Colour: Try to arrange all colours together to create a mass of individual colours, Reds together, yellows, greens etc. This is more visually appealing than a kaleidoscope of colour that tends to confuse the brain. This will also get you noticed from across the farmers market.
Be ahead of the pack: Try to get your new produce onto your display as early in the season as possible. If you are the first one with a particular type or cultivar at your market you start to build a loyal client base. Capitalise on this and work it. It may require you to plan ahead and invest in cold frames or tunnels. If it’s worth it, do it. Also, don’t drop out of the market suddenly, your clients can be very disappointed. Make sure you can supply the whole season, it need not be the same produce but your face needs to be there, with the same, new or different produce.
Mailing list: Work up a client mailing list that you can send out every Thursday/Friday with a produce list for Saturday and possible idea’s that they can cook up with your produce. This will ensure that a higher number of clients are coming to your stall for your produce. You may even find over time that they will drive out to you during the week to buy straight off the farm, or you can use the newsletter to start of a box-scheme.
Quality: It goes without saying, your produce needs to look as good, if not better than the stuff at your local supermarket. It’s a Farmers PRODUCE Market, not a place for you to sell soil samples and the occasional earthworm. You may think it shows freshness, your potential clients only see extra work and ‘dirty’ produce.
Glistening: Take a hint from the flower sellers on the street corner, mist your produce often. A spray bottle is cheap and will make your produce look so much more appetising while at the same time keeping it cool.
Signage: The little bit of effort you put into making nice signs for your produce will pay you… literally. Some hardboard, a few lengths of wood and a small tin of blackboard paint will allow you to chalk up specials and prices for your produce. Many people will walk past a stand with no prices without bothering to stop and ask.
Smile: This should go without saying, shake hands and tell them your name, this makes it a personal shopping experience for them, and helps to bring them back.
[Below is an article written by one of our clients, Tristram and his family have made the break and are settling down in their own piece of paradise. This is his initial post describing their beginning, we at Livingseeds.co.za wish him and his family every success and joy in their courageous descision]
At the beginning of 2010 we made a conscious decision to leave the city to start on our journey of self sustainability. We took a conservative approach and retained our suburban home whilst taking up residence in our very basic small country cottage. The idea being to at least start the journey and make that first “city” break, sever the ties as it were.
The advantages (depending on how you look at it of course!) was to be able to leave behind the clutter, gadgets, crime, and general consumerism. We became sick of crime, not only because of feeling threatened, but because of having to constantly watch your back and be “expected” to do neighborhood watch.
At the end of last year we had made a decision to home school as we had totally lost faith in the sausage machine education system and were keen that our children get as much time to be children. The underlying pressures (peer and marketing/in your face advertising) in a City environment certainly don’t promote this. Children need to be able to free play, to be able to create, and more importantly to self stimulate (boredom is a swear word!). It is also important for them to develop self confidence through making things and seeing the result. For this, the countryside is a canvass of opportunity.
So, I had 2000 square meters and a small house to start with. My first priority was to get the veggie garden going and so I demarcated an area of 3m x 20m. Up until this point I had been reading and tinkering around with a small veggie bed to give myself the best head start. A small garden is a good start, firstly because it is easily manageable and secondly it teaches you how long growing times are, what seeds look like, and collecting them. It also teaches you as to what is eating the veggies and moulds and how to overcome these issues. Yes, I had my fair share of issues; letting the mint get out of control, snails, caterpillars, aphids and generally not keeping on top of things!
I decided on 10 beds which would be laid out down the left hand side of the property as it is the “driest” part in winter and closest to the house. The grass had to be cleared, irrigation installed, and compost laid down. Unfortunately I had none of my own compost yet, so had to get in a truck load. This was after doing a little research and listening to some recommendations from the locals into organic compost.
In the meantime I had got a few old pallets together and set them up against the back fence and added some sides. Initially, to start the heap, I went to the local dump to collect greens (fresh grass and leaves) and browns (dead grass and autumn leaves) and layered them with some horse or cow manure and kitchen scraps and a little wood ash in between. To maintain this, I am adding my lawn clippings and any other of my neighbors’ dump material.
The beds were laid out 1mx3m. I opted for drip irrigation with the main line running down the side of the property and the smaller feeder/drip lines running perpendicularly off of this and over the beds. Each bed has 3 lines running along the length with drippers spaced approx 300mm apart (I figured this would be a good standard spacing). I bent wire into 300mm long “hoops” and pushed them into the soil over each dripper which helps to keep the dripper line straight, and when the compost was laid down, helped me to locate where the drippers are were (I figured this may be good when it came to planting, i.e. plant near the dripper!). 100mm of compost was laid over the top of each bed, burying the lines under it. There was a little experimenting here as this is a half mulching and half raised bed method where the set up is fairly minimal. I took up the grass which is very intensive, but I had no cardboard or plenty of newspaper to sheet mulch. The flexible polypropylene irrigation piping was purchased in rolls from a national agricultural supplier who had their “own” brand of drippers.
Then came planting. I had various sources of seeds, and although wanted to plant the basics, I was keen to try out different crops, specifically heirloom. The reason for this was to rediscover crops that had been lost through the modern marketing forces of today, and of course variety.
I decided to plant about 10 -12 rows, depending on the crops, along each bed. Although many people write about companion planting, I decided to basically plant whatever I felt like next to each other, onions being the exception! I will fill in with some of the pest preventing plants like chives, nasturtiums and marigolds etc later. I started with carrots, beans, peas, beetroot, NZ and Swiss chard spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, chives, radishes, lettuce and cabbage.
The challenge has been to try to figure out how many of each variety to plant for my family of four, and how to stagger the planting times to ensure a continuity of crops. Here I have flown by the seat of my pants and letting experience be my guide. There are always ways to improve, for instance I got caught out with frost with my beans and had to make a simple tent system until I work out something more permanent. Common sense and a little creativity is all that is required; see what you have lying around.
I set out an excel document, documenting each bed; what had been planted, where and when, and who’s seeds were used.
Time passed and the crops began appearing. Peas had to be staked and the crops checked for bugs and a bit of weeding etc.
After about a month and a bit I am already eating lettuce, radish and NZ Spinach.
The very idea of eating a carrot that is possibly the same as Jesus Christ ate, or beans that were on one of the first ships that landed in America (before it was America) is unique and romantic. Eating food that has been passed down from generation to generation as a precious gift, is something that most people do not think about, it’s just not important in today’s age. One can easily walk into the grocer and pick up a bunch of carrots or tomatoes without a second thought of how those carrots got to the shelf.
In days gone by, almost every household had a veggie garden and grew at least a few food items. The seeds that were used were open pollinated and heirloom seeds that they had saved, shared and swapped with neighbours friends and relatives. Only the best was considered worthwhile and the home gardener would specifically select those that produced well, were tasty and disease resistant. This was because 50 or 100 years ago we did not have the plethora of fungicides, pesticides and various assortments of chemicals for dealing out indiscriminate death to the malicious critter that dared to snack on “our” food.
Gardeners and farmers in days gone by used mixtures of soap, garlic and natural elements like sulphur and copper (you know… substances that actually have a number on the periodic table) that occur in nature to help them combat their common garden pests. In today’s world of new is better, we have chemicals that have lingering effects on soil for over 15 years, rendering the soil unfit for any type of food production.
OK back to heirlooms…. as I was saying, only seed from the best plants were saved. From this selection our renowned heirlooms were formed. I say formed as the continuous selection of plants and fruit caused distinct varieties to be created. These varieties sometimes created a cult-like following where gardeners made sure that every year they planted at least a few of these plants, so distinct and superior was the flavour and production of these plants.
In addition to the above, disease resistance was also important. What point would a well flavoured vegetable be if it succumbed to environmental stresses and pests before it could produce fruit? Now, I’m not saying that heirlooms are more disease resistant than hybrids (often they are not). Hybrids have been bred specifically for certain traits. Chief amongst these is disease resistance. In the process of creating a “good disease package” flavour is the hardest to keep and is not reliant on a single gene that can be turned on or off, much to the dismay of the GM market.
The biggest difference with heirlooms and hybrids is the genetic diversity of the individual variety. Let’s take a look at corn or as we South Africans prefer to call them…. mielies. In the Eastern Cape it was estimated that there were over 300 different landraces of mielies grown by individual communities. These landraces were distinctive in the fact that each community that lived in the isolated valleys saved and planted their seed for generations. Over time distinctive varieties were produced that could thrive in the unique microclimates where they were grown. This was only possible due to the inherent genetic diversity that was available in the original seed that was planted, this allowed natural selection (by nature and man) to winnow out the mielies to a point where each valley in the eastern cape had a distinctive variety that was accustomed to the specific environmental stresses that that valley experienced.
With Monsanto’s “upliftment” program (aided by our myopic government) they have been handing out “free seed” that has all but destroyed these unique varieties. The seed supplied has come from a very narrow gene pool where it has been engineered, re-engineered, hybridised and modified to a point where almost no genetic diversity remains in the seed to allow for unusual circumstances. One good example is as follows.
All of the GM and hybrid seed is currently being designed for today’s environmental conditions. With ‘climate change’ (the scientists have not quite decided if it’s warming or cooling) if there are any severe changes, all of the seed currently in production by the big GM houses will be worthless to farmers, no matter what chemicals they might desire to throw at them. Where do you think that will leave the average consumer that would like to eat a meal occasionally?
Heirlooms are our genetic guarantee of future food supply. No matter what nature cares to throw at us, if you have a handful of heirloom seeds you can be assured that firstly you can plant the seed, secondly you are able to save the seed for the following year and thirdly, if environmental conditions change the plant will have the internal genetic diversity available to adapt via natural selection. Something that cannot be said for any hybrid or GM seed.
It is interesting to note that ALL hybrids and GM crops have their roots in heirloom and open pollinated seed. Heirlooms were (and still are) used by breeders to create hybrids and GM crops. Heirlooms are the original source of their technology. So when you see a seed house or article denigrating the heirloom or OP vegetable, know that they have used these selfsame vegetables to create their frankenfoods.
So do I believe that heirlooms are important? Yes, without a doubt! We seed savers are literally the protectors of vegetable genetic diversity. One day scientists could call out to home gardeners to provide real vegetable seed that will feed the world, because the GM seed houses are busy engineering themselves and the farmers into a blind corner, and they can’t see what conditions are waiting around the bend. Look after your heirlooms and share them, the world may one day need them!
OK finally winter is here. Full swing and with big white teeth. We have had our coldest ever recorded morning last Wednesday with -10.5 deg C. The amazing thing was when I went out it certainly did not feel that cold. There was not a breath of wind and everything was absolutely still. After I had gone up to do the milking I really felt the cold… I suppose it takes a while to sink into your bones.
Our garden has come to a standstill, not much is happening and it’s now time to plan for spring. We will be putting up the first of our tunnels in the next week or so and it’s now a case of deciding what needs to be planted. We are going to concentrate on all of the new seed that we have received this year so that you guys can get your teeth into some great new veggies. Old actually, but new to planting in South Africa on a wide scale.
Our lambing season is going well and we have harvested a bull, 6 lambs and we will be doing a few pigs in two weeks time. I have just finished making our boerewors for winter and we are looking forward to a few hearty lamb curries over winter… Oh, the joys of a 100% home grown meal.